Forensic ink dating specialist
All these works, however, were destructive in nature except the techniques used by R. Another solvent for non-ballpoint inks to use is ethanol and water mixed at a ratio of one to one. Not all published methods are reliable, however, and some have been heavily criticized Hofer, This allows for a mass-independent evaluation of different samples. Chromatographic methods used for dating ink on documents. The plate is then viewed using ultra-violet light.
Each vial was then rotated to stir the sample and 4 microliters were then spotted next to the corresponding weak solvent spots for that vial. Differentiation of Inks and their Chloride and Sulphate Migrations. Hofer , who applied ESDA as a nondestructive approach to analysis. A backer should also be used; it should be made out of a material that will not allow any contamination into the removed ink sample. What is therefore needed is to develop a method that will make it possible to not only give information about the age of an ink writing, but also to distinguish the relative ages of sequential ink writings entered on a document or series of documents over time. With relative aging, samples of two or more questioned entries that may be on different sheets or on the same sheet are analyzed and compared to determine which sample is older or younger than the others Hofer, The reported works had been classified according to the writing instrument studied and the ink component analyzed in relation to aging. ChemImage published a progress report on hyperspectral imaging to discriminating black ball point inks and pointed out that hyperspectral imaging is taking document examination to the next level by increasing the power of discrimination available for ink differentiation with the nature and extent of its technological advancement. The vial was then placed in a holder that holds the vial at a slight incline so as to keep the ink plugs in constant contact with the extracting solution. Ink and Toner Intersections — When a signature or a handwritten notation intersects a printed text on a document, a forensic document examiner may be asked which came first, the text or the signature handwritten notation. Examination of ink using hyperspectral comparator HSC is a non-destructive process and has repeatable methods. The comparison is made between the dyes present, the color of each dye, the distance the dye travels from the origin, and the relative concentration of each dye component. Too many samples should be run rather than too few many possible matches exist. The presence of the same printing defects on the contested document and comparison documents or the same patterns of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints may yield valuable information concerning the dating of the contested document. The opposing expert concluded the questioned ink was manufactured by Bic. The new method for analyzing the drying time of ink was through chemical analysis. With inks available in common production this is much easier than with inks that are rare. Ink Dating Expert Witnesses by State. The samples are then taken, extracted, spotted, dried, developed, and dried just as described previously. See table of common solvent systems used for ink analysis. In the stage of final analysis, if all the possible matches are eliminated then no conclusion can be drawn other than that the ink does not match any of the standards in the library. Once the TLC plate is viewed, all four of the bands in the known standard should be visible under ultra-violet light and they should be separated so as to be easily distinguishable from one another. Manufacturers used two types of chemical date tags in their ink formulations. Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded. However, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a different formulation than any other entry in the entire diary. Other pages discuss the use of infrared to discriminate the differences between inks that visually and microscopically look identical. This is easily accomplished with use of a mechanical spotter by putting the holder back to the same setting used for the first spot made from each vial.
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