Accommodating to elf in the international university
But ELF is different. The status quo also means that international university English language requirements continue to be determined in accordance with entrance examinations grounded in native English, in other words, a national variety. There is little sign that those who are responsible for university language policy are aware of developments in academic ELF. And we turn now to explore these concerns in more informal academic settings. For, as Graddol It seems, then, that the time is well due for us to take a long hard look at what and who international universities, journals, conferences and the like are for, and as part of the process, to consider the implications for the kinds of English that are appropriate to the international enterprise.
This special issue … is written in ELF. Another interesting factor, as Seidlhofer points out, is that many of the features being described as potential ELF forms involve regularisation processes of a kind similar to those that occur in native English. And this is particularly true of academic English settings. Implications for written academic English Turning briefly to academic writing, while the situation is even more static here than in relation to speech, there have recently been a number of challenges to the academic written English status quo. On the other hand, as we will see in Section 4, some non-native students are at least starting to appreciate their advantages as multilingual speakers in academic ELF communities. Such a radical move would, of course, have serious implications for native English academics, an issue to which we turn in the next section. The fact is that all writing in international journals is, by definition, for an international rather than an ENL audience. One such context involves stative verbs: In this respect, Montgomery The indications so far are mixed. And perhaps the most frequently reported feature is zero marking of 3rd person singular —s in the present tense. For example, Mauranen explores the ways in which chunking operates in academic ELF as speakers employ chunks to manage their interactions and co-construct successful discourse. Whether English has been the first or an additional language to the writers, they have been addressing an international audience, not primarily ENL English Native Language communities. She identifies three main functions of the expression in ELFA: On the other hand, at its worst, the situation leads to assumptions that any such divergences are errors in need of remediation, and even on occasion to ranting caricatures of non-native academic English, such as the following: But ELF is different. They code-switch as a means of promoting solidarity with their interloctuors and projecting their cultural identities. In other words, while many universities claim to be deeply international they are in essence deeply national at the linguistic level. The difference is that because ELF is a situation of accelerated language contact, it is leading to accelerated language change and, in many respects, is simply speeding up regularisation processes that are already underway albeit more slowly in native English. How can anyone learn a hotchpotch in which it does not matter how the words are spelt, whether or not singulars are distinguished from plurals, and which syllables are stressed in speech and which are not? A second involves habitual activity: Their contributions thus reflect the kind of language use they discuss: This kind of institution, a university that has been set up — usually in East Asia — as an offshore branch of a British or North American. For, as Graddol Having said that, the critical role of accommodation, which is emerging as possibly the single most important pragmatic skill in ELF communication, was identified even in the earliest research into ELF phonology see Jenkins , Cogo The first thing we look for is comprehensibility — are they understandable to the native speaker?
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